What is dyslexia?
Dyslexia is a
learning disability that makes it hard to read, write,
and spell. It occurs because the brain jumbles or mixes up letters and words.
Children with dyslexia often have a poor memory of spoken and written
Having dyslexia does not mean that your or your child's
ability to learn is below average. In fact, many people with dyslexia are very
bright. But not being able to read well can make many areas of learning difficult.
Dyslexia is also called specific reading disability,
reading disorder, and reading disability.
What causes dyslexia?
Experts don't know for sure
what causes dyslexia. But it often runs in families. So it may be passed from
parents to children
(genetic disorder). Also, some studies have found
problems with how the brain links letters and words with the sounds they make.
Dyslexia is not caused by poor vision, and people with dyslexia
do not see letters and words backward.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Symptoms of ADHD
The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are traits that most children display at some point or another. But to establish a diagnosis of ADHD, sometimes referred to as ADD, the symptoms should be inappropriate for the child's age.
Adults also can have ADHD; in fact, up to half of adults diagnosed with the disorder had it as children. When ADHD persists into adulthood, symptoms may vary. For instance, an adult may experience restlessness instead of hyperactivity. In addition, adults with ADHD often have problems with interpersonal relationships and employment.
Types of ADHD
There are three different subtypes of ADHD, including:
- Combined ADHD (the most common subtype), which involves symptoms of of both inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity
- Inattentive ADHD (previously known as ADD), which is marked by impaired attention and concentration
- Hyperactive-impulsive ADHD, which is marked by hyperactivity without inattentiveness
For a diagnosis of ADHD, some symptoms that cause impairment must be present before age seven. Also, some impairment from the symptoms must be present in more than one setting. For instance, the person may be impaired at home and school or home and work. Also, there must be clear evidence the symptoms interfere with the person's ability to function at home, in social environments, or at work.